Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) is used to determine the temperature and heat flow associated with material transitions as a function of time and temperature. The instrument can also be used to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on endothermic and exothermic processes of materials during physical transitions that are caused by phase changes, melting, oxidation and other heat related changes. The sample is encapsulated in a pan along with an empty reference pan which are rested upon a thermoelectric disk surrounded by a furnace. As the temperature of the furnace is changed by supplying heat (typically in a linear rate), the heat is transferred to the sample and the reference pan through the thermoelectric disk. The differential heat flow to the sample and reference is measured by using the thermal equivalent of Ohm’s law.
The principle of thermogravimetric analysis is the relationship between the amount and rate of change in the weight of a material as a function of temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere. By using this principle, materials that show weight loss/gain due to decomposition, oxidation or dehydration could be characterized.
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is a technique used to study and characterize materials by applying a small deformation to the sample in a cycle manner and measuring the mechanical response of the bulk material as a function of time, temperature, and frequency. DMA test conditions can be designed to study bulk mechanical properties such as elasticity, viscous response, modulus and damping.